Class 9 Social Studies Note
WE, OUR COMMUNITY AND OUR NATION
The process that brings positive change is commonly known as development. Development is necessary because nothing remains the same forever. Development activities are the pathways for the economic development of people. If development activities will take place in certain place then the people and the lifestyle of people will also develop gradually. When there will be road construction in one of the place which is the part of development then the products that are produced in that place will get market which will enhance the economic development of people. In such ways development activities enhance the economic development of the people. Development environment and have very close relationship with each other.
Development work is very important for the progress of the country. Development work is important for the country because development works like agriculture, operation of industry, production of electricity, tourism, construction of road, etc. help in promoting income generating activities. From these works economic development can be observed. Such development activities provide employment to people. Skill is developed in them. The level of their work increases. It results the economic development of a person, society and country. The life standard of people does not change without the developmental activities. Similarly transportation for goods from one place to another becomes easier. Basic goods and services are required for livelihood of people. Food, clothes, shelter, education, health services, drinking water, hygiene, fuel, entertainment, safety, etc are basic things; the first and primary goal of development is to fulfill these basic needs of people. Various development and construction works help to fulfill the basic needs. Each country has its own kind of geographical structure. It affects the development works. Development activities should be operated in different parts of the country considering the geographical situation. It helps to distribute facilities in all regions. It helps to maintain the balance of population distribution. Development activities are essential for the development of the society. Development works encourage people to utilize the resources like land, water, forest, etc. The development helps to make the people self dependent. Economic status of people will be improved. It brings change in the lifestyle of people. Thus, it will help to protect the environment if the feeling of environment conservation can be aroused in people.
2. Measurement of human development:
There are different factors that determine human development.
A. The Human Development Index (HDI):
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions.
B.GDI gender-related development index:
The Gender Development Index (GDI) is an index designed to measure of gender equality. GDI together with the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) were introduced in 1995 in the Human Development Report written by the United Nations Development Program.
C. Objectives of the measurement of human development:
Human development is a concept within a field of international development. It involves studies of the human condition with its core being the capability approach. The progress that a country has made in economic development, arms and ammunition or nuclear weapons, etc does not have any meaning if the welfare of the people is not given priority. The people are the asset of the country. They make the country, not the other way round. If the people are progressive, the country develops automatically.
3. Study of human development of our won community:
There are many definitions of community development but the basic concept was stated by the United Nations in 1948. "Community Development is a process designed to create conditions of economic and social progress for the whole community with its active participation and fullest possible reliance upon the community's initiative."
Community development is a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems. Community wellbeing (economic, social, environmental and cultural) often evolves from this type of collective action being taken at a grassroots level.
4. Sustainable development:
Development activity that does not cause harm or disturbance to the ecology and which benefits us is called sustainable development. To maintain coordination among the existing population, the available resources, environment and development is the main goal of sustainable development.
There are huge cultural differences inherent in developing and developed countries. The lifestyle of people in developed countries has reached its state gradually. The people in developed countries are already economically sound and allocate their resources on luxury goods and recreation according to their means. In trying to imitate that, some people in our country allocate a substantial amount of their income in such leisurely activities and goods. This is against the concept of sustainable development, which actually encourages people and societies to live within their means and save for the future.
Countries like Nepal hardly pay attention to sustainable development because they are not in an economically strong position to do so. The majority of the people are poor and it is difficult for them to meet their basic needs. It is also difficult for the government to pursue development based on their meager resources. In such circumstances, people tend to act for immediate gains rather than think of the future. The present becomes much more important than the future and this is basically why it is difficult to implement the concept of sustainable development in our country.