Class 9 Social Studies Note


Infrastructure development:

Infrastructures are the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. Resources are the main requisite for the development of the nation. There is enough natural resources available for the smooth development and the progress of the country. But the problem lies with the human resources. Although there are ample natural resources available there is the lacking of the human resources to exploit these resources systematically. The lacking of the skilled human resources is the main hindrance to pave a concrete path to reach the summit of development. National development is not possible without the development of efficient and skillful human resource. On the one hand, efficient human resource could not be developed adequately in Nepal, in the other a few of the existing skilled human resources is moving to foreign countries. This problem is caused due to various problems. This has happened due to the following problems:
1. Our country Nepal is not able to produce highly skilled human resource.
2. Even they cannot be kept within the country because our country cannot pay them enough as the other country does.
3. The other countries provide them with enough incentives and facilities.
4. There is no good security system in the country.

The ways to resolve this problem are as follows:
1. The country should be able to establish very renowned universities to impart quality education and produce highly skilled human resource.
2. The country should be able to provide them with enough incentives and facilities to secure their future in the country.
3. The security system in the country should be very good.

Infrastructures of development:


Education is the backbone of development. This definition of development not only includes economic development but also social and cultural betterment of society. This is explained by the aims of education. By educating a society, the people gain knowledge and learn methods by which they can help build infrastructures and set up economically self-reliant communities. It teaches people to progress from traditional superstition based values to modern ones. People learn to respect one another, they realize the problems existing in society and learn ways in which to deal with these problems. By educating people, they learn to be efficient and creative. They become open to new ideas and learn to work together to obtain common goals.

             The level of educational development is not the same in all the development regions of Nepal due to different socio-economic and geographical situations in each of them. The number as well as the quality of educational institutions is also different in different development regions. In many places, such institutions are not accessible to everybody. The quality of staff is also different, as many people want to teach in cities. This creates a vacuum in rural areas, where schools and colleges end up with substandard staff. With all this, the level of educational development varies across the different development regions.


Good Health is important because a man of health can enjoy great happiness during his life time. Without health we cannot do anything in this world. A man suffering from fever remains confined to bed. He cannot get out of doors. He cannot do anything for anybody. Health before wealth is an old adage that can be readily understood by looking at the links between ill health and poverty in developing countries. Good health boosts labour productivity, educational attainment and income, and so reduces poverty. When poor people know their children are more likely to survive and be healthy, they tend to have smaller families and so higher incomes per family member. So programmes that aim to protect and improve the health of people below and just above the poverty line in developing countries could greatly help in the battle against global poverty.

                          The Ministry of Health plays a leading role in improving the health of the people including mental, physical and social well being, for overall national development with the increased participation of the private sector and non-government institutions in the implementation of programmes. The Ministry is also responsible to make necessary arrangements and formulate policies for effective delivery of curative services, disease prevention, health promotive activities and establishment of a primary health care system. These activities will be maintained at an international standard under the policies declared on health by Government of Nepal, ultimately improving the overall condition of health services.


Transportation is one of our most basic human needs. Without it, we would die pretty quickly. Transportation is the act of moving something from one place to another. We need transportation because all of life’s necessities and pleasures can’t possibly fit within the reach of our static bodies from birth to death. We either have to move ourselves to things or have things moved to us. Transportation allows economic development to occur because it’s a basic prerequisite for anything human. Neither could our economy exist without air, sunlight, or an expectation of immediate bodily safety.


Communication in simple language can be defined as the exchange of news, views and ideas from one person to another person. It is the exchange of information to create a better understanding between them. In business, communication is vital between a management and the employees. Whatever a business does is always through communication only. The smooth functioning of an organization depends upon the level of understanding the employees have about business communication. They should clearly know that communication is the act of transferring information from one person to another person inside or outside the organization. Constant and proper communication of news, views and ideas to the various stakeholders creates a good impression. Thus communication is important to maintain a good and healthy relationship with the various stakeholders of an organization.

           Communication is the sending and receiving of spoken or written messages between people and places. Other means are telegram, telephone, telex, fax, e-mail, radio, television, newspapers, etc.

1. Telephone:

Telephone is the fastest means of communication. Today, we can talk to people in far-off cities or even in different countries through the STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) and ISD (International Subscriber Dialing). Telephone facilities are available in all cities, towns and most of the villages these days. Telephone services are better and much cheaper than before. Cellular phones are also being increasingly used.

2. E-mail:

We can also send message by electronic-mail (e-mail) and the internet to any part of the world on the computers. The internet is a worldwide computer network, by which a user can connect his computer to another computer in any part of the world. E-mail is a very inexpensive means of communication.

3. Letter:

The letter, telephone and e-mail are personal means of communication i.e. they are used as means of communication between individuals.

When we have to communicate with a big group of people, or many people at one time, we have to use means of mass communication Newspaper, radio or television, etc., are means of mass communication.

4. Newspaper:

A newspaper has something for everybody. It gives opinions, information and news of interest from every corner of the world. In India, newspaper and magazines are published in English and regional languages.

5. Radio, Television:

Those who cannot read or write listen to the radio or watch programmers on television. These two means of mass communication have revolutionized our everyday life. Now we can listen to news, discussions and enjoy the different programmers of entertainment without leaving home. On radio and television, there are programmers for students and farmers. Now we can see films at home with our family. We can even watch events as they are happening in any part of the world sitting at home. We can also learn about the habits and culture of the people of different parts of the world.

         Every means of communication is useful in its own way for development. Together, they help us keep in touch with our friends, relatives and the world.

Water resource:

About 71% of the earth surface is covered with water. Out of the total amount of water 97% is in oceans and seas. Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. The majority of human uses require fresh water.

              Nepal is the second richest country in water resources in the world. We can see many rivers, rivulares, brooks, streams, fall, lakes and small springs. Among them, rivers are the most important water resources in Nepal. The major rivers in Nepal are Mechi, Koshi, Bagmati, Narayani, Gandaki, Kanali and Mahakali. Among them, the Koshi is the largest, the Narayani is the deepest and the Karnali is the longest rivers in Nepal. The major lakes are Mahendra Tal, Phewa Tal and Begnas Tal. Similarly there are innumerable brooks, streams and springs. Snow-capped mountain peaks are the permanent water resources of rivers, lakes and rivulates.
Our life is closely related to the water resources. All of them play a vital role in the development of the country. We have produced hydroelectricity in many places using the water of the rivers, rivulates and streams. We use water for irrigation, cooking, washing and drinking. They are also important for transportation and entertainment. Nowadays, many people enjoy rafting in rivers and booting on lakes. Rivers also play the role of regional and national boundries of the country. The agriculture of Nepal can be improved by providing adequate irrigation.


Electricity is the greatest gift of science to mankind. We have reached a point of our civilization when electricity is used for all purposes. Without it, our existence will be impossible. Electricity is a source of energy. It is produced by a battery or a coil of wires or by dynamo machine. It is produced in thermal station and also in hydro-project.

There are various wonders of electricity. The most important of all is electric fan and electric light. These two things have improved our living standard and also efficiency of work. Our houses, roads, offices and shops are lighted. It is difficult and sometimes impossible to work in an office where there is no light and fan. Electricity is a means of communication. Telegraph and telegram device is based on electricity. It is easy send messages to distant places. Telephone also functions due to electricity. Due to this facility, the world has become a familiar place for all.  Now-a-days, everything is done by electricity. We use grinder-mixture, refrigerators, washing machine and other home appliances at our home. But without electricity these things cannot function. Radio and television are gifts of electricity. Cinema is impossible without it.

                  The most important wonder of electricity is felt in the field of medical science. X-Ray, Scanning, Ultra Monographer Test, E.C.G., Endoscopy, etc. are the developed devices in the field of medicine and surgery. This is possible due to electricity only. Lunacy and mental disorder can be cured through electric shocks to the patients. Computer functions only when it is supplied with electricity.


People’s participation in the development:

People's participation is becoming the central issue of current period. Participation means that people are closely involved in the economic, social and cultural and political processes that affect their lives. People may in some cases have complete and direct control over these processes in other cases the control may be partial or indirect. People have constant access to decision making and power. Participation in this sense is an essential element of human development. It generally refers to people's involvement in particular projects or programmes. But today participation means an overall development strategy focusing on the central role that people should play in all spheres of life. Human development involves widening their choice and greater participation enables people to gain for themselves, access to a much broader range of opportunities.

           The overall aim of this Plan of Action is to ensure active participation of people in the achievement of sustainable rural development. People’s participation in project implementation in the community is generally accepted as a means of mobilizing human and material resources. All directed to increasing productivity and thus improving the living standards of the people.



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