Grade 12 Computer Science Note

Information Communication Technology and Cyber Law

Term Ict and it's impacts on society
ICT is applied area of computer science, electronics, telecommunication, business and of every fields that deal with processing, storing and transmitting information.

Positive impacts:
Education
Medicine
Banks
Business
Communication
Multimedia
Employment
Productivity
Ecommerce
Entertainment

Negative impacts:
Health problem
Piracy
Pornography
Computer viruses
Hacking
Privacy
Cost
Less employment
Loss of information
Digital socialization

 

Digital Divide and it's Conceptualization
The digital divide refers to the gap between the have and the does not have in computers, internet access, access to information and ecommerce.

 

Conceptualization:
Means of connectivity or how individuals and their associates are connecting and to what like infrastructure, location, and network availability.
Intensity of connectivity, or how sophisticated are the usage like mere access, retrieval, interactivity, innovative contributions.
Purpose of connectivity or why individuals and their associates are connecting like the reasons why individuals are online and use the internet and ICT's.
Lack of connectivity which means that why individuals and their associates are not connecting.

 


Computer ethics and Commandments of computer  ethics
Ethics deals with placing a value on acts according to whether they are good or bad. Computer and information ethics can be understood as that branch of applied ethics which studies and analyzes such social and ethical impacts of ICT.

Commandments:
Do not use a computer to harm other people
Do not interfere with other people's computer work
Do not snoop or view around in other people's files
Do not use a computer to steal
Do not use or copy software for which you have not paid
Do not use other people's computer resources without authorization
Think about the social consequences of the program you write
Use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect

 

Intellectual property (IP)
Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literacy and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. IP is divided into two categories: industrial property and copyright.


Anonymity and privacy
Anonymity means that the person does not expose his or her identity. It means outsiders cannot trace, link or observe the contents of the messages.
Privacy is the interest that the individuals have in sustaining a personal space, free from interference by other people and organizations.

 

Cyber law 
Cyber law is a type of law which rules in the internet to prevent internet related crime.

 

Fields of cyber law
Electronic and digital signature
Computer crime
Intellectual property
Data protection and privacy
Telecommunication law

 

Cyber law of Nepal
Nepal cannot be isolated from emerging technology and the problems raised by the technology. The cyber law is on the process of development. Nepal passed the Electronic Transaction and Digital Signature Act 2004, also known as Cyber law.
The main laws are:
The law covers most of the issues related with cyber activities and is supposed to forecast to be landmark legislation for development of IT industry in Nepal.
Conducts such as hacking, deleting data, stealing e-document, software piracy and posting offensive information are capable of criminal and civil sanctioning under the new cyber law.
The government can punish cyber offenders with up to 5 years of imprisonment and /or fine of up to Rs. 50,000. However, much depends on the harshness of the crime.
The law has tightened the security for banking transactions through electronics means, which should boost the economic activities across the internet via Nepal.
It gives legal status to information posted on the websites of government offices, government run corporations and local bodies.
It has also granted legal status to digital signatures sent through the electronic media like e-banking, e-commerce, etc.
The law has also made a new judicial body to listen to complaints, cases and matters concerning cyber crime.

 


Computer Crime
Computer crime has been defined broadly as a criminal act that has been committed using a computer as the primary tool.

 

Forms of computer crime
The theft of money, for example, the transfer of payments to the wrong accounts
The theft of information, for example, by tapping into data transmission lines or databases at no cost.
The theft of goods by their diversion to the wrong destination
The theft of computer time, for example, use of an employer's computer resources for personal work.
Besides of these, computer crime can also take form of hacking, cracking, sabotage and blackmail.

 

IT policies
The policies of IT are the action adopted for the implementation of strategies to achieve goals and fulfill the objectives. Some of the policies of IT are as follows:
To declare information technology sectors a prioritized sector.
To provide internet facilities to all village development committees.
To render assistance to educational institutions and encourage native and foreign training.
To computerize the records of each governmental office.
To increase the use of computers in the private sector.
To develop physical and virtual information technology park.
To use information-technology to promote e-commerce, e-education, e-health, among others.
To establish National Information Technology Centre.
To establish a national level fund by mobilizing the resources.
To establish Nepal in the global market through the use of information technology.


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