Class 10 Environment and Population and Health Note

Environmental Status Of Nepal

Status of environment in Nepal

Ecosystem: 

Ecosystem is defined as the structural, functional and self-sustaining unit of biosphere, which consists of biotic and abiotic components. There is a continuous cycle of interrelationship between a community and its physical environment that causes the formation of complex and permanent relationship. Such kind of phenomenon that occurs in the nature is also known as ecosystem. So, an ecosystem can be defined as an overall integration of the whole mosaic of interacting organisms and their physical environment in particular areas.

An ecosystem includes biotic factors like producer, consumers, decomposers and abiotic factors like soil, rock, water, heat, light etc.

An ecosystem includes abiotic factors like soil, rock, water, heat, light etc. It helps for the circulation of the ecosystem properly. It also helps in the balance of ecosystem. They are responsible for the survival of the living organisms

All living beings in nature fall under biotic factors. The factors indicate a biological community of particular area. A biological community can be divided into producer, consumer and decomposer on the basis of flow of energy in the ecosystem.

Producers: Producers are those living organisms of the ecosystem which are capable of synthesizing their own food from inorganic compound. For example, grasses, trees, Aquatic green plants, etc.

Consumers: Consumers are the heterotrophs of the ecosystem which feed on other living organisms. For example, cats, insects, fish etc.

 

The relation between the people and the environment:

There is Very deep relation between people and the environment. The conservation of the forest is very important to have a balance in the natural environment. The conservation of the forest plays an important role so it must be preserved by the effort of the human beings. Community forests must be conserved with the help of the students. These programs help to increase the awareness level in students and also in protecting the forest.

Soil is also very important element of the environment which is very necessary for the mankind. Without soil on earth the life of the human beings on earth is almost impossible. So soil must be preserved by the people by various ways. Use of harmful pesticides and chemical fertilizers for high yielding of crops may give short term benefit but it detroits the quality of soil in a long run. Therefore the conservation of soil must be initiated. A lot of waste products are produced in our daily use.

 

Ecosystem of Nepal by Geographical Region:

1. Ecosystem of the mountainous region:

The ecosystem of mountain region is different from that of other regions. There is 35% of land of the country is covered by mountain region. Its altitude Varies from 4877 meters to 8848 meters. Sub divisions are inner himalaya, main himalaya and marginal Himalaya. In this region Trees like pine, fir, deodar, bhojpatra, talispatra, rhododendren, gobre salla, thingre salla, etc are found. And animals like himalayan thar, himalayan ghoral, serow, langur, musk deer, red panda, snow leopard, etc. Plants and medicinal herbs like yarsagumba, panchaunle, uwa, barley, buckwheat, etc are found. The people of this region follow hinduism and buddhism as their main religion. The main economic activities of this region are trade, agriculture and animal husbandary.

2. Ecosystem of the hill region:

The ecosystem of hill region is different from that of other regions. There is 42% of land of the country. It’s altitude from 610 meters to 4877 meters. Sub divisions are churiya range,mid hill and mahabharat range. Trees like sal, chilaune, bamboo, katus, kharsu, peepal, rani salla, etc are found in this region. Animals like tiger, clouded leopard, deer, jackal, wolf, bear, fox, monkey, langur, etc are found. Plants and medicinal herbs like mushroom, kurilo, koiralo, asuro, harro, barro, sarpagandha, zibre saag, etc are found. The castes living in this region are Brahmin, Chetri, kami, damai, rais, limbus, magars, etc. The people of this region follow Hinduism as their main religion. The houses of this region are multi storey in the urban areas and are made up of concrete and cement. In the villages are made up of wood, mud and stone.

3. Ecosystem of terai region;

The ecosystem of Terai region is different from that of other regions. The altitude of this region gradually decreases moving from north to south. Various aspects of the ecosystem of terai region are described below:

Physical aspects

There are altogether twenty districts in terai region of Nepal. They are Jhapa, Morang, Nawalparasi, Bara, Parsa, Chitwan, Banke, Bardiya, etc. Terai region of Nepal covers 23% of the total land area of Nepal. Terai region has the variation of altitude from 60 metres to 610 metres. Terai region consists of twenty districts. Terai region of Nepal is divided into three sub-divisions. They are inner terai, main terai and bhabar terai. Terai region is the most fertile among all the regions of the country. Terai region is also called the granary of Nepal.

Biological aspect

The biological aspect of this region is also different from that of the mountain and the hilly region because of the varation of the land topology and altitude. Different kinds of birds found in Terai region are eagle, vulture, hawk, crane, stroke, hornbill, peacock, etc. Similarly trees like sal, sissau, khayar, pipal, bamboo, katus, chilaune, etc. are mainly found in this region. Animals like leopard, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, panther, crocodile, deer, bear, etc are found. Medicinal herbs like amala, harro, barro, mushroom, etc are also found in this region. This region is also called the store house of the food grain.

Socio-economic aspect

The types of food crops found in this region are rice, wheat, maize, etc in this region. The houses in the urban areas are multi storey buildings where as in the rural areas are small and made up of bamboo wood and stone along with mud. People of caste like Satar, Dhimal, Rajbansi, Tharu, Yadav, Mandal, etc live in this region. The main economic activities of the people of this region is agriculture but people are also engaged in service and trade along with business. People in this region mostly follow Hinduism as their religion however few number of muslims are also found. The main festivals that the people of this region observe are Dashain, Deepawali, Holi, Janai purnima, Id, Chhath, etc.

 

 

Physical aspects of the mountain, hilly and terai belts:

Physical aspects of the environment are altered with the alteration of the geographical region. The physical aspect of mountain region is peculiar from that of hilly and terai region. This is because of the landform and the structure of the topology. The altitude of the terai region is from 60 metres to 610 metres where as the altitude of hilly region is from 610 metres to 4877 metres. Similarly the altitude of the mountain region is from 4877 metres to 8848 metres. So the physical aspect of the place differ with the geographical region.

 

Hilly Region

Terai Region

Mountain Region

1. 42% of land of the country

1. 23% of land of the country

1. 35% of land of the country

2. Altitude from 610 metres to 4877 metres

2. Altitude ranges from 60 metres to 610 metres

2. Altitude from 4877 metres to 8848 metres

3. Sub divisions are churiya range,mid hill and mahabharat range

4. Soil found-Silty

5. Climate- Modrate

3. Sub divisions are inner terai, main terai and bhabar terai

4. Soil found- Alluvial soil

5. Climate- Hot and humid

3. Sub divisions are inner himalaya, main himalaya and marginal Himalaya

4. Soil found- Silty and loamy

5. Climate- COLD Moist and dry

 

Socio-economic levels of mountain, hilly and terai belts:

Mountain-

Mountain region lies in the northenmost part of the country. The people living here in the mountain region are specially Bhotiyas, Gurungs, Ghales, Mugals, Thakalis, Dolpo,etc. The people of this region live in the house made up of wood, mud and stone with thatched roof. The houses have small doors and windows in order to prevent the escape of heat in the frigid region. The main religion of the people of this region is Buddhism however some people are Hindu. The main festivals of the people are Lhosar, Buddha Jayanti, Udhauli Parba, Ubhauli Parba, Dashain, Tihar, Maghe Sakranti, etc. The main crops of the mountain region is millet, maize, potato, barley, wheat, buckwheat, etc. the main economic activities of the people of this region is animal husbandary. People are also engaged in trade and business along with the collection of the medicinal herb. People also has depended their livelihood in agriculture. They put on very thick clothes in order to prevent themselves from irresistible heat.

 

Terai-

There are altogether twenty districts in terai region of Nepal. They are Jhapa, Morang, Nawalparasi, Bara, Parsa, Chitwan, Banke, Bardiya, etc. Terai region of Nepal covers 23% of the total land area of Nepal. Terai region has the variation of altitude from 60 metres to 610 metres. Terai region consists of twenty districts. Terai region of Nepal is divided into three sub-divisions. They are inner terai, main terai and bhabar terai. Terai region is the most fertile among all the regions of the country. The main caste living in this region are Dhimal, Rajbansi, Satar, Rajput, Yadav, Mandal, Tharu,etc. The people of this region follow Hinduism as the main religion however Muslims are also found. The houses in the urban areas are multi storeyed building where as in the rural areas is of wood, mud, stone and bamboo. The main festivals observed in this region are Chhath, Holi, Dashain, Tihar, Id, Bakrid, etc. The main economic activities of the people are agriculture, service and trade.

 

Hilly-

There is 42% of land of the country. It’s altitude from 610 meters to 4877 meters. The status of religious and cultural heritage of hill region is different from other.  The main Cultural and religious sites of hill region are Haleshidham, pasupatinath, Swoyambhunath, Manakamana, etc. The castes living in this region are Brahmin, Chetri, kami, damai, rais, limbus, magars, etc. The people of this region follow Hinduism as their main religion. The houses of this region are multi storey in the urban areas and are made up of concrete and cement. In the villages are made up of wood, mud and stone. The main festivals observed in this region are Dashain, Tihar, Christmas, Id, Lhosar, Buddhaajayanti,etc. Various jatras are also celebrated. The main economic activities of this region are agriculture, business and service.

 


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