Class 9 Health, Population and Environment Note

Environmental Health


1. Pollution means some direct or indirect changes in the components of the environment that degrades and deteriorates the environment. Pollution means the decreasing the quality of air, drinking water, and cultivable soil. Pollution is caused by the introduction if undesirable and harmful elements to our environment.

2. Air pollution is defined as the undesirable change in air which directly or indirectly causes harm to us. Air pollution is caused by the accumulation of dust around us, in our homes and streets, which are blown around.

3. The addition of any substance to water or changing of water’s physical and chemical characteristics in any way which interferes with its use for legitimate purposes is known as water pollution.

4. Sound pollution is an unpleasant sound which causes discomfort. These days there has been rapid industrial growth. In towns the growing population has caused heavy traffic.

5. Land pollution is caused by indiscriminate use of fertilizers and pesticides. It is also called by poisonous waste products coming out of factories which are mixed up with soil. Soil pollution leads to decrease in crop production.

6. Bore-hole latrine is a non service type of latrine. Bore hole latrine was introduced by the “Rockefeller Foundation” during 1930 in the campaign of hookworm control.

7. Service Type: In this system the excreta has to be controlled and removed by the manual labor. It is also called conservancy system. 

8. Non Service Type: In this method the excreta is not transported by human beings, but the waste materials are transported automatically. No service type of latrine is also known as a sanitary latrine.


9. Block method: While colleting wastages by this method. By mobilizing the vehicles for the collection of waste in a fixed route and providing the waste materials to the vehicles when informed by bowing whistle or ringing bell or blowing horn.

10. Community Method: In this method, huge containers are kept at various places in the community.

11. Door to door method: An individual goes door to door with a carrier to collect the wastage. At the end, he takes the waste to the dumping site.

12. Using the same material time and again is called reuse. If we use the non biodegradable materials such as plastic bags and baskets, we should bring the same bag or baskets in use several times. It contributes a lot in reducing the quantity of solid waste.

13. Recycling uses old waste to make new products. It cuts down the amount of rubbish and saves natural resources by reducing the need for new raw materials. Items most suitable for recycling are organic matter which can be composted and used as fertilizers, metals, glass and paper.



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