Grade 12 Computer Science Note

Contemporary Technology

e-Commerce and e-business

E-commerce refers to online transactions, buying and selling of goods and/or services over the internet.

E-business covers online transactions, but also extends to all internets based interactions with business partners, suppliers and customers.


Advantages of e-commerce:

a.  It makes buying selling procedure faster, as well as easy to find products.

b.  It makes buying/selling possible 24/7.

c.  There are no theoretical geographical limitations hence more reach to customers.

d.  It reduces operational costs and provides better quality of services.

e. It does not require physical company set ups.

f.  It is easy to start and manage a business.


Disadvantages of e-commerce:

a. Any one, good or bad can easily start a business. And there are many bad sites which eat up customer's money.

b. There is no guarantee of product quality.

c.  Mechanical failures can cause unpredictable effects on the total processes.

d. As there is minimum chance of direct customer to company interactions, customer loyalty is always on a check.

e. There are many hackers who look for opportunities and thus an ecommerce site, service payment gateways all are always prone attack.



E-learning is a new concept of delivering digital contents in learner oriented environment using information and communication te4chnology (ICT). Delivery of the digital content is the main characteristic of e-learning.


Advantages of e-learning:

It maintains the consistency of content.

It is easy for customization.

There is no any geographical limitation for learning.

It is quite favorable for learner as it can happen at any time and anywhere.

It reduces or eliminates travel costs to attend learning events.

It reduces or eliminates need for classroom/instructor infrastructure.


Disadvantages of e-learning:

Learners with low motivation or bad study habits may fall behind

Without the routine structures of a traditional class, students may get lost or confused about course activities and deadlines

Students may feel isolated from the instructor and classmates

Instructor may not always be available when students are studying or need help

Slow Internet connections or older computers may make accessing course materials frustrating

Managing computer files and online learning software can sometimes seem complex for students with beginner-level computer skills

Hands-on or lab work is difficult to simulate in a virtual classroom.



E-governance is the application of electronic means to improve the interaction between government and citizens; and to increase the administrative effectiveness and efficiency in the internal government operations.

Despite the government of Nepal has positively giving attention towards the development of ICTs and subsequent implementing e-governance, a number of issues has yet addressed. Some of the challenges for successful implementation of e-governance are presented as:

Information transparency

Legal issues

Resources availability

Infrastructure including connectivity in rural area

Capacity and awareness

Political will and government action


Advantages of E-governance

E-Governance offers many benefits and advantages for the government, corporate sector and society. E-Governance facilitates better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. It simplifies internal operations and improves performance of government departments while helping all sections of society to avail government services at lower cost with maximum ease of use.



Virtual reality

Virtual reality is a new computational paradigm that redefines the interface between human and computer becomes a significant and universal technology and subsequently penetrates applications for education and learning.


Application fields of Virtual reality

Virtual Reality in the Military: A virtual reality simulation enables them to do so but without the risk of death or a serious injury. They can re-enact a particular scenario, for example engagement with an enemy in an environment in which they experience this but without the real world risks.

Virtual Reality in Education: Education is another area which has adopted virtual reality for teaching and learning situations. The advantage of this is that it enables large groups of students to interact with each other as well as within a three dimensional environment.

Virtual Reality in Healthcare: Healthcare is one of the biggest adopters of virtual reality which encompasses surgery simulation, phobia treatment, robotic surgery and skills training.

Virtual Reality in Business: Many businesses have embraced virtual reality as a cost effective way of developing a product or service. For example it enables them to test a prototype without having to develop several versions of this which can be time consuming and expensive.

Virtual Reality in Engineering: Virtual reality engineering includes the use of 3D modelling tools and visualization techniques as part of the design process. This technology enables engineers to view their project in 3D and gain a greater understanding of how it works. Plus they can spot any flaws or potential risks before implementation.

Virtual Reality and Scientific Visualization: Virtual reality is being increasingly used in the field of scientific visualization. This field is based upon using computer graphics to express complex ideas and scientific concepts, for example molecular models or statistical results.

Virtual Reality Programming Languages: For virtual reality to be truly effective, it must have a good sense of realism. Just on its own this is a technical challenge and, as such, virtual reality is highly demanding on many resources. From hardware performance to the intellectual ability of the implementer of the system, how these are managed are a massive issue.




E-medicine refers to an approach that provides medical services whenever and wherever required using information and communication technology.

With the help of this approach, even small number of doctors can provide medical service to large number of people scattered in different locations. The people of rural areas who are unable to get service of doctors can be benefitted from this approach. The patients share his/her medical problems to the doctors. This approach is now getting more popularity among the doctors too. They can post their experiences and issues in the online discussion forum. Without good facility of information and communication technology, e-medicine cannot be effective. This is the problem facing in the developing countries like Nepal.



Impact of Robotics in human life

Positive Impacts:

Robots can provide a wide variety of benefits to society. The most prominent benefit of robots is that they allow physical tasks to be performed at a greater speed than humans could reasonably achieve, and that tasks can be performed by robots that are beyond the reasonable physical capabilities of humans. For example, in manufacturing, mechanized processes allow production to take place at a great speed, with little human effort required. This allows for the low-cost mass-production of goods. These manufacturing processes allow for great precision, and can allow products of a very high quality to be produced.

Negative Impacts:

As they are out to use to do common tasks, Humans are increasingly becoming lazy, and thus their health is adversely affected. Also, as robots become more and more autonomous, the chances that they commit a mistake are very high. These mistakes can lead to serious problems if unchecked. Also, as self-learning Robots evolve, they may make decisions that are harmful to Human beings. From another perspective, If the robots are not self-learning, they will do jobs only which they are programmed for. Updating their functions will thus require more expertise.

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