Class 10 Environment and Population and Health Note
Community is a collection of people living in a place within a particular environment. It may be population of different caste, ages, sexes, and nationality. Community health comprises activities of the people, for the people and by the people to identify the health problems, their causes and solutions for the modification and better improvement in personal and environmental health. The roles of community are: To provide facilities, manpower, logistics support and possible funds, The community should help the authority to decide the health priorities, Community may participate in decision making about its health services, It form the organization to solve the existing problems, It formulate the rules, regulations and ways for healthy living and practices.
Thus the main idea of community health is the participation of all members of the community towards better health as much as possible. People should also aware of the health problems in the society and be able to contribute to the solution of the problems. We may summaries the importance of community health under following points;
1. Creation of healthy environment:
As we study Community health comprises activities of the people, for the people and by the people to identify the health problems, their causes and solutions for the modification and better improvement in personal and environmental health. In this process, the idenitification of causes help to the organize the various activities as per the needs of the society by the people which leads towards the solution of the problems. Thus the studies of community health help to create healthy environment.
2. Development of healthy human resources:
The good health of the citizens based on the practice of the Hygienic habits. So, every individual should have to understand the need and importance of personal hygiene and their contributory roles in the maintenance and development of community health. The practice of personal hygienic habit helps to maintain and uplift the standard of living.
3. Availability of health services;
Study of community health helps to identify the health problems and their causes in every sector of the society. It also suggests the way to ensure the better health and healthy environment services. Community health advocates the availability of health services as a birth right of every individual.
4. Sentiment of social service:
Study of community health helps to identify the health problems cannot be solved by individuals alone. It needs group efforts; it encourages the people to work as social activists. It also motivates the social activities to gather the individuals and work in organized form. This organized form help to established club, NGOs, INGOs which work in the society.
Measure health problem of Nepal:
Nepal is country with the increasing population. It has various types of culture. More than eighty percent of the people live in villages. People are economically backward. They lack the knowledge of scientific principles of diseases and maintenance of health. The health problems of the country are various and working out the health schemes efficiently becomes difficult. In this context a critical analysis of the Nepalese community presents some facts responsible for the poor standard of community health. Among the basic requirements of the people, education is an important need. Knowledge, skill and technology can develop through the media of education. It creates social, cultural, political awareness in people and makes them advance. Education plays an important role in the complete development of a human being. The education or literacy percent of Nepalese population is still very low. 39.6 percent of total population is only literate. Education helps to create social, cultural, political awareness whereas illiteracy does not help in developing awareness regarding the consequences of over population growth, environmental sanitation, superstition, hygienic habits, methods to present population growth and such other ways of living and planning for the development. Therefore illiteracy has been accepted as one of the major health problems of Nepal.
Communicable diseases are not regarded as serious health problems in developed countries. In developing countries, however they are major health problems. The diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, meningitis, worm, typhoid, venereal diseases are the major causes of immature death in the rural population. A study shows that about 45000 children of Nepal die annually from diarrhea. HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis are widely spreading. However the prevalence of communicable diseases is not so endemic today compared to the past. In fact a high death rate communicable disease reflects a low level of community health.
The effects of population increase on health are:
a. The increased population demands more health services and facilities which is not possible due to economic and political constraints.
b. The ever growing population has an adverse effect on national health facilities as well as personal health of each individual.
c. The increased population needs huge resources to fulfill their basic needs as well as additional needs, which deteriorates the environment and affect the health of an individual.
d. Overpopulation creates unsafe environments and unsafe environment is the causes of exposure to micro organisms, excessive radiation and health of an individual gets deteriorated.
e. Nutritious food and balanced diet cannot be provided to every member of the society in a poor country like Nepal. The lack of nutritious food and balanced diet is the cause of several kinds of diseases.
Major roles of family in the solution of health problem areas;
1. Family may help to understand the fundamental behavior patterns of the society.
2. Family may help to protect and promote the health f a child or a helpless and old member through proper care.
3. Family counseling may develop the understanding of healthy living and practices.
4. Family may manage the basic needs of their family members.
5. Family may set a norm of healthy living for the community.
6. Family may provide timely health care and treatment to their members.
7. Parents may teach quality education to their children for the social adjustment.
Basic forms of available health services in Nepal areas;
1. Preventive health services:
All those means, procedures, and ways adopted to safeguard people from the disease in advance is known as preventive health services.
2. Promotional health service:
Promotional health services are those measures which intend to bring the improvement in the present health of the people. The maternal-child health care, communicable disease control programme, mid-day meal programme for the school going children, vitamin A project, etc. are some examples of promotional health services.
3. Curative health services;
When treatment is given on the basis of diagnosis of the casualty after observation of various signs and symptoms or complaints of the patients, it is known as curative health service.
4. Health Centre:
It provides basic health services, treatment and preventive health services. There is less number of beds for patients. There are 180 health centers.
5. Health posts:
There are 699 health posts. It provides minimum medical and preventive health services to the people of the Ilaka through the medium level health workers. There is more number of beds for patients.
Major health programmes of Nepal:
In, fact as health service is one the essential services for human beings; it has been accepted as an integral part of human right. The major health programmes of Nepal, The health aims and strategies of Three Year Interim Plan are:
1. To upgrade the level of sub-health posts in accordance with the destiny and geographical remoteness to reach health post. To upgrade health institutions to primary health centers wherever there isn’t one in an election area.
2. To give priority to all those who are socially, financially downcast; women, indigenous people, dalits, muslims community, senior citizens and physically challenged in providing basic health service free of cost.
3. To make provision such that the free health services provided by governmental and private hospitals be made available to neighboring districts as well.
4. To make health services available to citizens in Far Western Region, Mid-Western Region and marginalized area by developing the infrastructure and increasing health service personnel.
5. To make alternative health services like ayurvedic medicine available to the citizens according to their choices.
6. To continue the services related to the eye run by non-governmental organizations and add more such programs for expansion.
7. To make child inoculation and nutrition more effective.
8. To increase the number of gynecologists in the district hospitals.