Class 10 Environment and Population and Health Note
There are millions of creatures like vegetation, animals, and microorganisms including human beings on the earth. They have variation among themselves. Their diversity or variation on the ecosystems denotes biodiversity. Biodiversity is specially classified into three levels. They are species, ecosystem and genetic diversity.
1. Species Diversity
There are various species of animals and vegetations including human, elephant, birds, maize, wheat, pulse, potato, etc. They are categorized under species diversity. The species of micro organisms like virus and bacteria also come under it.
2. Ecosystem Diversity
Ecosystem is the inter relationship between living organisms and the environment. Living organisms survive according to their capacity and capability. There is also biodiversity due to the structure of ecosystem.
3. Genetic Diversity
Each creature has own genetic qualities, the people in the mountain have the genetic quality of bearing cold while the people in terai have the genetic quality of bearing hot. In this way the genetic diversity among other creatures also exist in the environment.
The description about the importance of biodiversity is as under:
Agricultural products give the daily food to survive for the human beings. Various products like paddy, maize, wheat, vegetable, fruits, etc are the basic food of people needed to be taken in order to live a healthy life. The source of all those products is agricultural biodiversity. These plants were in the wild state at the beginning but the human beings started cultivating them. In this way agricultural biodiversity is very important.
Animal products are also very necessary for the survival of human beings. The animal products like milk, curd, ghee, meat, fish, etc are very important sources of protein for the nourishment of the body. Raw materials required for the medicinal treatment is also obtained from the animals. Income generation can also be done from the animal products.
Human beings obtain fruits and wild roots from plants. Plants are the sources of furniture, industries, herbs, clothes, medicines, paints and papers. Biodiversity has made us able to obtain many kinds of useful materials from various kinds of plants.
Improvement of breeds
There are various species in the biodiversity which has become very important for the human beings. These species of the nature which exist in the biodiversity are scientifically tested and cross breeding are done in order to produce highly improved breeds. The cross is done on the basis of local species, disease resisting capacities, etc. Therefore biodiversity is very important.
Soil is the integral part of biodiversity. Without soil life wouldn't be possible on earth. It is directly the habitat for thousands of life living under soil and it is the most suitable platform for the growth of crops. The biodiversity has also resulted the conservation of soil in the nature. Due to the capturing of the soil by big as well as small plants the soil is prevented from erosion. The decayed and dead plants and animals after going under decomposition be bacteria serves as the nutritional element for soil. In this way the fertility of soil increases. In this way biodiversity is important for soil conservation.
Measures of Biodiversity conservation:
Human activity is the most important for the conservation of biodiversity. Human beings are the wisest among the living things found on earth. Biodiversity is getting degrading due to the unwise activities of humans. Human should be very conscious about the conservation of biodiversity. If biodiversity will be exploited systematically with maximum use and less harm for the nature then it will be the best way for the conservation of biodiversity.
Various Organizations are conducting different programmes at national and local level for the conservation of biodiversity. The conservation of biodiversity refer to the conservation of whole creature on earth. It is the conservation of habitat required for them and is also the conservation of genetic characters, conservation of animals requires the conservation of habitat and ecosystem. Conservation work develops both of their numbers and characters. Therefore the conservation of biodiversity is essential.
1. in- situ and Ex- situ conservation:
The conservation of the living beings and animals by creating a man made habitat is called in-situ conservation of the rare animals and plants. The conservation of the natural resources in their own natural habitat is called the ex-situ conservation of rare plants and animals.
For the instance, National trust for natural conservation has been conducting different programmes for biodiversity conservation through the participation of community members.
The international centre for integrated mountain development is also conducting different programmes for the conservation of biodiversity and management of habitats and ecology.
The world conservation union IUCN is also conducting different programmes for the conservation of biodiversity and management of habitats and ecology.
Role of community in diversity conservation
Community is closest to biodiversity. The utilization of the elements of biodiversity is done by the people residing in the community. Due to the people of the community the biodiversity is also getting degraded day by day. Biodiversity conservation has become the most important issue in today's world. We need to be very careful about the conservation of the biodiversity. Conservation of biodiversity does not only mean to preserve them without touching them. Rather the conservation of biodiversity means the proper exploitation and systematic utilization without making severe harm to the biodiversity. Community should make plans and policies and look after the conservation of biodiversity because initiation of community for its conservation can be very important.
Different causes of depletion of wildlife in Nepal:
Like most developing country, threat to biodiversity in Nepal is initiated by the activities of the human beings. Habitat destruction and over-exploitation are the main cause of extinction of wild life.
a. Habitat loss, forest destruction and degradation: In Nepal the greatest threat to the conservation of wildlife comes from the activities of man which include habitat loss and forest destruction. The destroying habitat of wild life by overpopulation for commercial timbering, cropland, industries, road ways, canal developmental activities, for fuel wood, power plants cause wildlife extinction.
b. Over-exploitation of forest resources: People to large extent depend on forest resources for their sustenance. People use forest products for fulewood, fodder, timber, shelter, medicine and food plants which increase the extinction of wild life.
c. Illegal hunting and poaching: Illegal hunting is common practice throughout Nepal. Mammals and birds are killed, river fish stocks are overexploited, dolphins are trapped for meat, pheasants are hunted for their meat and carnivores are hunted for their pelts and bones.
d. Trade: There has been commercial trade of wild flora and fauna both legally and illegally. One of example is one-horned rhinoceros which is in decreasing amount due to trading.
e. The population growth and poverty is also the main cause of wild life extinction.
The habitat of organisms, birds and animals is called the natural environment. Rare animal is considered as the condition in which their number is not sufficient at present.
Some examples of rare animals are as;
1. Clouded leopard
2. Red panda
3. One-horned rhinoceros
4. Bengal tiger
5. Crimson Horned Pheasant
6. Black stork
7. White stork
8. Sarus Crane
These animals have lost their habitat due to various reasons. Trees in the forests are cut indiscriminately which have caused the loss of their habitat.
Forest fire has also caused the loss of their habitat. People are hunting these illegally for selling important organs of the animals because those animals have very high demand on the black market. Strong rules and regulations are not made therefore the poaching is still continued which has caused to the increment of the rareness of the animals.
Due to the adverse affect in the environment various reasons like forest fire, landslide and other regions the habitat of the organisms living on earth is losing their habitat. Therefore the conservation of habitat must be done. For this plants should be planted in bare land and the stream and the water areas must not be filled up.
1. Chitwan National Parks:
It is the oldest national park of Nepal and covers 932 km2 areas. It is declared as national parks in 1973. It is also placed in world heritage site. It comprises a complex ecosystem of Churia hills, ox-bow lakes and flood plains of Rapti, Reu and Narayani rivers.
2. Langtang National Park:
It is situated in the north of central Nepal and is the nearest park to Kathmandu. It comprises 1710 sq. km. The park is the home of several ethnic groups.
3. Sagarmatha National park:
Sagarmatha national parks lie in the solokhumbu district of the north-eastern region of Nepal and cover an area of 1,148 sq. km. It is established in 1976 and declared as world heritage site in 1979.
4. Rara National park:
Rara national park is located in North-west Nepal. The park lies in Mugu and Jumla districts in the mid weastern Nepal. This is the smallest park in Nepal covering 106 sq. km. It is established in 1976.
5. Shey- Phoksundo National park:
It is situated in the mountain region of Dolpa and Mugu district of north-west Nepal. It is the largest park in the country with an area of 3,555 sq. km. The area around shey and phoksundo lake was first purpose as a wildlife reserve in 1974 and in 1984 a very large area around that is declared as national park.
6. Khaptad National park:
The khaptad national park is located in the mid-mountain region of far-western Nepal. It was established in 1984 and it covers area of 225 sq. km.
7. Bardia National park:
Bardia national park is situated in Bardia district in the middle far-western terai. The park which covers an area of 968 sq. km. it is established in 1969.
8. Makalu-Barun National park:
It lies in the solukhumbu and sankhuwasabha districts of eastern Nepal. It was established in 1991.