Grade 12 Zoology Note

Animal husbandry

Poultry farming:

 Poultry farming is the raising of domesticated birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry are farmed in great numbers with chickens being the most numerous. More than 50 billion chickens are raised annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their egg. Chickens raised for eggs are usually called layers while chickens raised for meat are often called broilers. In the US, the national organization overseeing poultry production is the (FDA). In the UK, the national organization is the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affair (DEFRA).

Poultry farming in Nepal

Poultry farming is the commercial rearing of domestic birds like chickens, ducks, turkeys, etc. Poultry farming in Nepal and its popularity increasing between local farmers they raising chickens organically for meats or eggs that provides a rapid return on our investment. Poultry is fast growing meat business sector in Nepal, because of the high demand.

 A carefully controlled environment that avoids crowding, chilling, overheating, or frightening is almost universal in chicken rising. Cannibalism, which expresses itself as toe picking, feather picking, and tail picking, is controlled by debarking at one day of age and by other management practices. The feeding, watering, egg gathering and cleaning operations are highly mechanized. The vast majority of chicks hatched each year are used for broiler production and the remainder for egg production. In egg production feed represents more than two-thirds of the cost. Immature hen flocks predominate. Hens are usually housed in wire cages with two or three hens per cage and three or four tiers of cages superposed to save space. Cages for laying hens have been found to increase production, lower mortality, reduce cannibalism, lower feeding requirements, reduce diseases and parasites, improve culling, and reduce both space and labor requirements.

Fish farming:

Nepal is rich in freshwater fishes inhabiting in freshwater fishes inhibiting in hills and ponds of terai region. Fish is the branch of animal husbandry. Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under agriculture. It involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. Different types of ponds require for fish farming are as follows:

1.Segregation pond: For the production of egg at least two small segregation ponds (0.3 hac) are needed in order to keep male and female fish separately. They are separated 2-3 months before their breeding.

2.Breeding Ponds: These are small (0.2-0.3 hac) , special ponds having a central pit and a slow continuous flow of water. The borders are kept in it at the ratio of 2male : 1 female. Hence they becoome excited and bored.

3.Hatching ponds: These are also small ponds of 8’x4’x2’ in which a regular flow of water is maintained. The fertilized eggs are transfer in these hapas where they hatch within 24-48hrs.

4.Nursery ponds: These are 50’x50’x4’ sized medium pond. They are dried during summer and so are seasonal ponds. The sac-fries are stocked in these ponds at a rate of 2-2.5millions per hector.

5.Rearing ponds: These ponds may be seasonal or perennial, retaining water for long periods, where fingerlings are reared about for 2-3 months.

6.Stocking ponds: These are large and perennial ponds . If fed well, the fish may attain an average body weight of 0.5- 2 kg in 5-10 months.

Required qualities for cultivable fish:

Some of the required qualities for cultivable fish are given below:

1.Soil: The suitable soil is the clay soil having no or low sand.

2.Water: Must be permanent source of clean water.

3.pH: The pH ranges 5-10 is tolerable to fish where fish need certain ranges of pH i.e. 7-8.

4.Oxygen: For respiration , they utilize O2  dissolved in water.

5.Light: Pond must not be a shady places.

6.Depth: Very deep and large ponds are difficult to manage, particulary for the control of weeds and for harvesting.

7.Manuring: some fertilizer and organic and inorganic manures should be introduces into the regular interval.

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