Grade 12 Zoology Note

Amniocentesis and test-tube baby


It is the technique of obtaining amniotic fluid from the womb of a pregnant woman for parental detection of foetal disorders. It is done on about 14th or 15th weeks after conception. Amniocentesis is most often performed for the reason of following;

1.Mother is over 35 years old at the time of delivery.

2.Family history of chromosome abnormality.

3.Family history of inherited disorder

4.Family history of neural tube defect.

Misuse of amniocentesis

This technique is, unfortunately misused to know the sex of the foetus. It causes high number of abortion of normal female foetus. Therefore, the determination of sex by amniocentesis has been banned.

Test-tube baby (in vitro fertilization):

Test-tube baby is a technique of fertilization of ovum by sperm outside the women body in the laboratory conditions. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body. The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova from the woman ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. The fertilized egg is cultured for 2 to 6 days in a growth medium and is then implanted in the same or another woman uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.

Surrogate mother:

A woman who substitutes or takes the places of the real mother to nurse embryo is called surrogate mother. Surrogate mother never becomes genetic mother.

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