Class 9 Science Note

Adaptation of Organisms

Adaptation is the ability of organisms to adjust in the existing environment. It is the adjustment of organisms in the surrounding environment for their existence by changing the body structure accordingly.

Example: Wolffia, a very small flowering plant, does not have roots. It floats in water.

Terrestrial plants have well developed roots.


Aquatic adaption

The animals and plants that grow in water are called aquatic plants and animals. Their ability to adapt themselves in the water is called Aquatic adaption.


Adaptational characteristics of aquatic plants

a. The leaves of water hyacinth have air storage tissues which help the plant to float.

b. The hydrila plant does not have root hairs in its root. It has flexible stem and small leaves.

c. The floating plants such as lemna and pistia have very weak roots; hence their root tips are inside the root pocket.


Adaptation characteristics of aquatic animals

a. Air sacs are present in the body. It helps them to float in water.

b. Fins are present in the body. Fins help animals to swim, balance, and change the direction.

c. Fish have gills for respiration, which helps to absorb oxygen dissolved in water.


Terrestrial adaption

The ability of plants and animals to adapt in land is called terrestrial adaption.


 Adaptation characteristics of terrestrial plants

a. They have well developed roots.

b. Climbers possess tendrils, hooks, and aerial roots etc that provide support to them.

c. Plants found in moist habitat have well developed leaves and roots.


Adaptation characteristics of terrestrial animals

a. Desert animals such as camels have water pouch in their body for storing water.

b. Rodents have strong forelimbs, claws and mouthparts.

c. Terrestrial animals have dissimilarities in their limbs and claws

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